|Genus, subgenus, species, subspecies, and variety
are set in italic; if in parentheses, make parentheses italic. Genus and subgenus are capped, species lowercased. In Pharamachus mocinno mocinno the terms represent, in order, the genus, the species, and the subspecies. In Bambusa vulgaris var. striata these
terms represent, in order, the genus, the species, and the variety. The
name of a scientist, in roman, is sometimes added if it is relevant to a specific article or for specialized publications:
Pharamachus mocinno mocinno De la Llave.
If the species is unknown: Pharamachus sp. (spp. is plural).
If the species is new and not yet formally named:
Pharamachus n. sp.
The designation n. sp. may also be used with a new name that has been formally published:
Pharamachus mocinno n. sp.
The genus may stand alone; generally the species must be preceded at
least by the initial letter of the genus (italic with period):
If the genus and species names have already been given in the text, they can be abbreviated when a subspecies is named:
Picoides tridactylus inhabits North America
P.t. bacatus is the dark-backed eastern race.
Scientific plurals for Latin genera or species are the same form as the singular.
Do not use accents, diacritical marks, or ligatures in scientific names:
Troodon, not Troödon.
Scientific names: Put the translation of a scientific name within quotation marks:
Carcharodontosaurus, or "sharp-toothed reptile"
Oviraptor, Latin for "egg stealer"
Maiasaura, or "good mother lizard."
Phylum, subphylum, class, subclass, order, suborder, family, subfamily are capped and roman:
belong to the family Trogonidae.
They are treated as plurals unless
accompanied by a category designation. Examples:
Carnivora eat vegetable
matter as well as flesh.
The order Carnivora includes a wide range of
cats and dogs.
Be cautious about using the scientific name of a new species if a
scientific description has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed