|See COPYRIGHT and FOOTNOTES.
Fair use is the legal doctrine stating that portions of copyrighted
material may be published without the permission of the copyright
holder, provided the use is fair and reasonable and does not
substantially impair the value of the material and does not curtail the
profits reasonably expected by the owner. The four factors in
determining fair use are:
||The purpose and character of the use, including whether the use is
commercial or for nonprofit educational purposes. (The purposes most
appropriate for fair use are criticism, comment, news reporting,
teaching, scholarship, or research.)
||The nature of the copyrighted work (works of fantasy, artistic creation,
or fiction have a broader scope of protection than factual works).
||The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the
copyrighted work as a whole (assessed from both a qualitative and
||The effect of the alleged "fair use" upon the potential market value of
the copyrighted work (which may be assessed not only from the standpoint
of the effect of the use on future sales of a work but also on the
ability of the owner of the work to license it for use by others).
|Short quotations from prose works are as a general rule fair use. If an
article borrows heavily from one source, it may be necessary to get
permission of the copyright holder.
Quotations from poems and songs require more caution, and such use should be referred to the legal office.
Try to work authorship into the body of the text. Otherwise use a footnote.
In all cases where any doubt exists, consult the National Geographic legal office.