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CREDITS

The content of photographic credits in NGM is the responsibility of the Photography department. The Art department is responsible for art and graphics credits; NGM Maps handles map credits. Editorial style for credits is determined by the magazine’s text staff. Clarity for the reader should be the ultimate goal.

No credit is necessary for a shot of a previously published NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC cover or layout.

An image that has been digitally composed or manipulated should carry a credit that acknowledges this with words such as photo illustration or digital composition.
PHOTO ILLUSTRATION: CARY WOLINSKY AND JEN CHRISTIANSEN

A frame of film used as a still or an image from an ROV is treated as a photograph and may be credited with the word photograph:.

See also:    BYLINES, CREDITS: SPECIES IDENTIFICATION,
                      NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY.

1. Punctuation and Typeface
Credit lines contain no closing punctuation unless the entry itself is a sentence.

Use a comma between photographer’s name and agency or institution.
PETE OXFORD, MINDEN PICTURES
DAN CEPEDA, CASPER STAR TRIBUNE
KEN HERKENHOFF, USGS

Use slashes sparingly. They may be used in photo agency and institution names but should not be used in place of a comma between photographer’s name and agency.
BETTMANN/CORBIS
NASA/JPL (unnecessary to add Caltech to the credit)

In a single credit use commas to separate several entities. If a single entity itself contains a comma, use semicolons to separate entities. If two or more entities are given, use a semicolon.
WILLIAM FELDMAN, DAVID LAWRENCE, TOM PRETTYMAN, AND RICK ELPHIC, LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY
KEN HERKENHOFF, USGS; NASA/JPL; CORNELL
NASA/JPL; MALIN SPACE SCIENCE SYSTEMS

In a single block of type containing more than one credit, include directionals (see section 2) and use a semicolon between the credits.
PHIL AND LYNNE RICHARDSON (ABOVE); RYAN LOBO (TOP)
SUKREE SUKPLANG, REUTERS/CORBIS (ABOVE); ADREES LATIF, REUTERS/CORBIS (RIGHT)

In a block of type containing involved credits for several photographs or illustrations, periods may be used to separate individual credits.
PHOTOGRAPH OF DIGITIZED 1968 X-RAY: R. C. CONNOLLY, UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL. WOODEN BOX: KENNETH GARRETT, EGYPTIAN MUSEUM, CAIRO

Italics should be used when needed for titles of books and newspapers, ship names, species of plants and animals. When giving the names of newspapers, italicize the location only if it is part of the newspaper’s proper name:
LONDON TIMES
TIMES OF LONDON
NEW YORK TIMES, but NEW YORK TIMES/REDUX
BALTIMORE SUN

For readability, letters such as the c in Mc should be reduced in size.

Use accent marks even on capital letters.

To simplify punctuation in credits, omit periods on abbreviations such as Inc

Use figures (even for numbers below ten) and abbreviate measures (do not use periods) after first use.
CHRYSINA MACROPUS, 1.6 INCHES (ABOVE); CHRYSINA AURIGANS, 1.3 IN (LEFT)

2. Directionals
When several credits are lumped together, generally start with the picture closest to the credit and include a directional in parentheses at the end of each credit. It may be possible to omit one directional if it is clear by a process of elimination what picture it applies to.
DAVID BARR, WORLDVIEW ENTERTAINMENT (BOTH)
DAVID MCLAIN (ALL)
NAT FEIN (ABOVE); BOB SACHA (ALL RIGHT)
JOHN GURCHE (INSETS); REBECCA HALE, NGM STAFF
MARK W. MOFFETT (TOP); JUNE LIVERSEDGE
IRA BLOCK (LEFT AND SMALL SKULL, FAR LEFT)

When using (above), the photograph should be immediately above the credit; otherwise use (top). The same is true in reverse for (below) and (bottom).
ANNIE GRIFFITHS (ABOVE); MARK THIESSEN, NGM STAFF (BELOW)


LUIS MARDEN (TOP); LUIS MARDEN AND NACA (BOTTOM LEFT AND RIGHT)

On pages with several illustrations it may be easier to indicate the order of credits at the beginning of the credit.
FROM TOP: DON RYAN, AP PHOTO; AP PHOTO; LAURA DICKSON, NGT&F; ROBERT CLARK


CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: ED KASHI, CORBIS; FRANS LANTING; DAVID DOUBILET


CENTER FROM LEFT: CDC/PHIL, CORBIS; SEA STUDIOS FOUNDATION; JOEL SARTORE

Sometimes it works to identify the image by subject rather than by directionals.
PHOTOGRAPHED AT OXFORD UNIVERSITY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (SKELETONS) AND AT WILLIAM L. CLEMENTS LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ANN ARBOR (PORTRAIT)

3. Follow the credit provided by an agency or institution except for adapting to NG style. Occasionally a credit may need to be shortened and should be rechecked with the agency or institution.
Some commonly used agencies and institutions:
AFP/GETTY IMAGES
AP IMAGES
AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS
ART RESOURCE, NY
BETTMANN/CORBIS
CORBIS
CORBIS/SYGMA
EPA PHOTO
GETTY IMAGES
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC STOCK
REUTERS/CORBIS
UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD/CORBIS

Do not use a website as an organization’s name in a credit.

If an institution’s name can be abbreviated, use the full name on first use with abbreviation in parentheses. Subsequent credits need only the abbreviation.
NASA AND MALIN SPACE SCIENCE SYSTEMS (MSSS)
NASA AND MSSS
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (AMNH)
AMNH

A few well-known institutions may be abbreviated on first use.
IUCN
JPL
NASA
NOAA
UNESCO
USGS

Use a slash in a name only if the organization or agency writes its name with a slash.
INSTITUTE FOR EXPLORATION/INSTITUTE FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND

Special case: Because of JPL’s connection to Caltech as well as to NASA, write:
NASA/JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
NASA/JPL

For other NASA installations write:
NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.

In most credits, especially lengthy ones, use this order without internal punctuation:
NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
NASA/JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
USGS EROS DATA CENTER
NOAA NATIONAL HURRICANE SERVICE

In a single credit, it may sometimes be appropriate to use a more formal order, giving the subsection first and the institution second, separated by a comma:
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, NASA
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY, NASA
EROS DATA CENTER, USGS
VISUALIZATION LABORATORY, NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OFFICE
NATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL DATA CENTER, NOAA

4. Museums and Institutions
A photograph of an object in a museum or other institution usually needs to be credited to that institution. Give the photographer’s name first, then the institution. If the photograph was made by the bylined photographer, naming just the institution is often enough. However, for clarity it may be necessary to use “at” or “photographed at.”
SISSE BRIMBERG AT NATIONAL ARCHIVES
KENNETH GARRETT, EGYPTIAN MUSEUM, CAIRO
PHOTOGRAPHED AT MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ANN ARBOR
PAINTING PHOTOGRAPHED BY STEPAN BARTOS AT MENDEL MUSEUM, BRNO, CZECHIA

In some instances, a general note on the opening spread is an effective way to credit a museum.
ALL ARTIFACTS PHOTOGRAPHED WITH PERMISSION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFGHANISTAN

EXCEPT WHERE NOTED, ALL MUMMIES AND ARTIFACTS PHOTOGRAPHED AT ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF SAN MIGUEL DE AZAPA

Omit the from an institution’s name unless there is a compelling reason to include it:
NEW YORK TIMES
ANDRE CAMARA, TIMES OF LONDON
ANDRE CAMARA, LONDON TIMES
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
THE INSTITUTE FOR GENOMIC RESEARCH (TIGR)

The names of foreign museums and institutions may be written in the native language or in English; be consistent throughout an article. The location of an institution or museum should be given on first use but does not have to appear in subsequent credits. If a city is not well-known, include the state or country in the credit.
BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS
REGIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM, LIPARI
MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO NAZIONALE D’ABRUZZO
GENERAL ARCHIVES OF THE INDIES, SEVILLE
ARCHIVO GENERAL DE INDIAS, SEVILLE
WALT WHITMAN HOUSE, CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY
EXHIBIT MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, ANN ARBOR

5. Copyright and Courtesy
Do not use copyright or the copyright symbol in credits for NGS images.
GREG MARSHALL, NGT&F

When using copyright or the copyright symbol, do not precede it with a comma, but insert a space both before and after the copyright symbol.
RICHARD H. MEADOW © HARAPPA ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROJECT

Use courtesy for those rare situations when images are provided under special conditions and without charge. When using courtesy in a credit, do not use of.
DATA COURTESY SUPREME COUNCIL OF ANTIQUITIES, ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT

BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS, COURTESY EUROTUNNEL

6. Staff Credits
If a staff member is not given a byline, then on first mention in credits follow the name with NG STAFF or NGM STAFF.
ALEXANDER MOEN, NG STAFF
MARK THIESSEN, NGM STAFF
REBECCA HALE, NGM STAFF
A. R. WILLIAMS, NGM STAFF
CHRIS JOHNS, NGS (note the omission of STAFF in the Editor's credit)
Note: NGM Staff (uppercase "S") when not in all caps

Use with when crediting NGS technical staff.
PETER ESSICK WITH JOSEPH S. STANCAMPIANO, NGM STAFF
   
A credit for nonphotographic staff may specify a particular division of the Society:
CARRIE REGAN, NGT

7. Graphics Credits
Credits for NGM Art staff read:
ART: FERNANDO BAPTISTA, NGM STAFF
DIAGRAM: MARIEL FURLONG, NGM STAFF
DIAGRAM: NGM ART

In addition to an artist's credit, a graphic often needs a credit for the source or sources:
ART: DAVID FIERSTEIN. SOURCES: H. SAPIENS, CHRISTOPHER B. RUFF; H. ERECTUS, SUSAN C. ANTON AND CONNIE FELLMAN

ART: FERNANDO G. BAPTISTA, NGM STAFF. SOURCE: COUNCIL ON STANDARDS FOR INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL TRAVEL

8. Map Credits
Generally give the map credit first, followed by the source or sources. The sources may be run in with the map sources or written on a new line.
MARTIN GAMACHE, NGM STAFF
DATA: NAVTEO

NGM MAPS. SOURCE: PHILLIP T. ROBINSON, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

9. Department Pages
On NGM department pages, the credit is placed at the bottom of the page introduced by Photo: or Photos:
            PHOTO: DAVID MCLAIN